Rice is cultivated in many different ways around the world, the different methods used can differ greatly even in the same locality.
- Ploughing – Usually with a simple plough drawn by water buffalo, ploughing breaks up the soil.
- Fertilised – Naturally fertilised.
- Smoothing – Where a log is dragged over the field to smooth the earth, giving a smooth bed for the seedlings to be planted on and ensures the water depth is equal.
Seedlings are started in beds and a after a period of 30 -50 days are transplanted by hand to fields which have been flooded by rain or river water. The seedlings are often placed a hand span apart. During the growing season, irrigation is maintained by dike controlled channels or by hand watering. The fields are drained before cutting of the crop commences.